Comprehensive Health Screening

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MJ Health Comprehensive Health Screening Items

Micro Physiological Assessment (MPA)

MPA mainly observes changes in the body’s basic functionality and uses a more ideal health data as reference values. Compared with the screening and disease information of regular health check-ups, MPA is based on the concept of “Early Detection”, analysing the causes of discomfort, with the intend to provide solutions and further health management. MPA mainly evaluates the three major functions of the body, metabolism system, immune system and endocrine system.

Carbohydrates and nutrients obtained from food are vital to sustain life, while glucose is the most direct source of carbohydrate. Carbohydrates in foods that cannot be used effectively will be stored in the form of fats, coupled with fats formed inside the body, they will be used to maintain physiological function and to meet the long-term needs of life. Therefore, utilization of sugar and metabolism of fats is the very first step in maintaining vitality & health.

  • Fasting Blood Sugar
  • HbA1C
  • Insulin
  • Triglyceride
  • Cholesterol
  • HDL-C
  • LDL-C
  • TG/HDL-C

Inflammation is the manifestation of body immunity. The exogenous factors that cause inflammation including bacteria, viruses, environmental toxins, food, drugs, stress and etc. Meanwhile, endogenous factors consist of factors such as physiological metabolites, intestinal toxins and etc. Inflammatory reactions can be divided into acute inflammation and chronic inflammation. Acute inflammation is the normal reaction of the body when facing injuries. When the acute inflammation did not execute the repair task, it will induce abnormal chronic inflammation. Long-term chronic inflammation will cause imbalances in physiological function, thus induce chronic and degenerative disease formation.

  • hs-CRP
  • Fibrinogen
  • Uric Acid
  • Homocystein
  • Ferritin

The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is an important part of the neuroendocrine system. It regulates the response to emergency circumstances (stress), adjusts the movement of physiological activities, including digestion, hormonal secretion, immune system, energy storage and consumption, emotions, detoxification and etc. After adolescence or early aging reduces of secretion of sex hormones year after year, coupled with fact that the environment is surrounded by hormones that undermine hormonal balance (stress), is an important factor in the loss of vitality and well-being of life, thus understanding of hormonal regulation and action will benefit add to health promotion.

  • FSH
  • LH
  • Testosterone
  • SHBG
  • Albumin
  • Free Testosterone
  • Bio Testosterone
  • Estradiol (E2)
  • TSH
  • Free T4

General Screening

Blood tests show whether the levels of different substances in your blood fall within a normal range.

Your blood test results may fall outside the normal range for many reasons. Abnormal results might be a sign of a disorder or disease.

Many diseases and medical problems can't be diagnosed with blood tests alone. However, blood tests can help you and your doctor learn more about your health.

  • Hemogram

High WBC count may indicate organ / tissue inflammation, leukaemia or tissue death etc. However, pregnancy, newborn and vigorous exercise may also cause high WBC count.

Low WBC count may be caused by viral infections, aplastic anaemia and immunodeficiency syndromes and etc.

Anaemia or blood loss will affect RBC count. High RBC count may be found in erythrocytosis or thalassaemia; low count may be due to anaemia.

Haemoglobin is stored in red blood cells to carries and supply oxygen to body's organs and tissues. The haemoglobin level in females is usually lower than males because of menstruation and pregnancy. Therefore, females are more prone to anaemia. High Hb level may be found in erythrocytosis and decreased cardiac output; low level may be due to hypochromic anaemia.

HCT denotes the % volume of RBC to whole blood and can indicate more accurately the severity of anaemia. High HCT may be due to dehydration or polycythaemia; low HCT may be caused by anaemia.

High MCV means red blood cells are macrocytic, and may be found in B12 and Folic Acid deficiency anaemia, megaloblastosis, females on oral contraceptives menopause or senile people. Low MCV means red blood cells are microcytic, and is seen in iron deficiency anaemia, thalassaemia and anaemia due to chronic diseases.

MCH represents the mean hemoglobin content in the red blood cells.

MCHC is the mean value of the haemoglobin concentration in red blood cells. Except in hereditary erythrocotosis, the value of MCHC is usually <36g/dl. Low MCHC is seen in iron deficiency anaemia and thalassaemia.

RDW can be used as reference in the diagnosis of anaemia.

Increased level may be associated with erthrocytosis, chronic myeloid leukaemia, myelofibrosis, splenectomy, chronic infections or the convalescent phase of acute infections. Low platelet count may be found in bleeding tendencies or aplastic anaemia with clotting defects.

The WBC differential count values should correspond with WBC count in order to make a more accurate diagnosis

  • Neutrophils
  • Lymphocytes
  • Monocytes
  • Eosinophils
  • Basophils

  • Blood Sugar Tests

Insulin can metabolize sugar and maintain blood glucose in normal value.

The normal value of fasting blood glucose is between 3.9~5.6mmol/L. Value more than 7.0mmol/L can be dignosed as diabetes. Diabetes has close relation with the insulin of pancreas.

Haemoglobin responsible for carrying oxygen to body to be used by cell tissue. Blood glucose and haemoglobin will combine and change into glycosylated haemoglobin. Once the glucose is attached to the haemoglobin, it will not fall off easily, until the red blood cell ages and damaged. In general, the half life of the red blood cells is about 120 days, so glycosylated haemoglobin can represent the average blood glucose level over 2-3 months.

  • Liver Function Tests

Increased T-BIL causes the skin and eyeballs to become yellow, a condition called 'jaundice'. It may be seen in acute hepatitis, haemolytic anaemia, gallstones, cholangitis and obstructive jaundices etc.

Increased D-BIL may indicate hepatitis, cirrhosis or obstructive jaundice. The D-BIL increase is milder in haemolytic anaemia.

TP is used to assess the nutritional status, liver functions, renal functions and infectious diseases. TP is the collective designation of all the protein combinations present in the serum. More than half of the combination are albumin, the rest are globulin and fibrinogen.

Albumin is used to maintain the plasma osmotic pressure. It is manufactured in liver and can be decreased in liver diseases, diarrhoea, nutritional imbalance and renal diseases etc. Elevated concentrations of albumin in plasma is caused by a relative loss of water.

Increased GLO level is found in infections, liver diseases, renal diseases, auto-immune diseases and cancers. The result should be interpreted by doctors together with other examination results.

ALP is an enzyme and is most concentrated in liver, gallbladder and bones.

sGOT is an enzyme which is mainly stored in liver. It is also found in heart, brain or blood cells. Raised sGOT level indicates pathological changes in these organs or cells, especially liver.

sGPT level indicates the severity of cellular damage. In acute hepatitis, sGPT level may reach 500-1000 IU/L or above. High level may also be found in chronic hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, cirrhosis and liver cancer etc. sGPT level may also be slightly raised in fatty liver.

This enzyme is stored in liver, pancreas, and kidney, and is commonly used to screen diseases and cirrhosis, particularly alcoholic liver disease and drug-induced liver disease.

LDH is found in many organ tissues like liver, heart, kidney, muscle and red blood cells. High level may indicate myocardial infarction, lung infarction, liver impairment, muscular dystrophy, leukaemia, anaemia or cancer. Specific diagnosis is usually made in conjunction with other investigations.

  • Renal Function Tests

Urea is the metabolic waste produced by kidney metabolism. When kidney function is impaired, metabolic wastes cannot be excreted normally and the blood BUN will increase. BUN values are easily affected by drugs and should be interpreted together with other examination results.

Creatinine provides a major source of energy for muscular activities. When the kidney function is normal, creatinine is excreted in the urine. CRE level is an important indication for the diagnosis of renal diseases.

Glomerular Filtration Function is commonly reflected through Glomerular Filtration Rate. The factor for calculation of eGFR is based on the blood volume filtered by the glomerule in one minute. eGFR will aid to detect early kidney disease or renal dysfunction.

  • Uric Acid Tests

Uric acid is the metabolite of purine, and is highly concentrated in the internal organs of animals. Uric acid level will be high in excessive alcohol intake, diabetes mellitus, gout, nephritis, lead poisoning, hyperparathyroidism etc. Low level is found in abnormal renal tubular reabsorption, congenital enzyme deficiencies and pregnancy.

  • Blood Lipid Tests

TG mainly comes from glycogen and carbohydrates (rice, bread etc). High TG level may lead to diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and obesity.

Cholesterol is a complex lipid in the body, 60%-80% of it are formed by liver, intestine and skin. The rest of it is from food intake. An important fact to note is that Cholesterol is not totally bad and it plays a very important role in our life.

Cholesterol must be combined with lipoproteins in order to be transported in the blood. HDL-C is responsible for transporting cholesterol from peripheral tissue to liver metabolism. LDL-C is responsible for transporting cholesterol for the use of tissues. Through such model, the balance of cholesterol in cells is maintained.

LDL-C is responsible for the delivery of cholesterol for the use of cell tissue, as LDL contains substantial amount of cholesterol, its small size which penetrates the blood vessels will produce atherosclerosis which will cause angiemphraxis.

The T-CHOL / HDL-C ratio reflects the balance of cholesterol distribution. If the ratio is low, it shows that the HDL-C has increased, and the risk of cardiovascular disease is relatively lower. If the ratio is high, it is due to high cholesterol or low HDL-C and the risk of cardiovascular disease is high. So the ratio of T-CHOL and HDL-C is an indicator which is more useful compared to T-CHOL.

  • Calcium, Phosphate and Serum Iron Tests (Ca, P, Fe)

Hypercalcaemia is usually found in malignant tumours, hyperparathyroidism and vit. D poisoning. Hypocalcaemia is seen in rickets, kyphosis, vit. D deficiency and hypoparathyroidism. Calcium level should be interpreted together with phosphate level.

Serum P level is measured together with calcium level. If both Ca and P levels are high, malignant tumours should be suspected. Decreased P level may indicate hyperparathyroidism or vit. D overdose.

Serum Fe measurement mainly screens the body for iron deficiency. A low serum Fe with normal haemoglobin indicates the early stages of iron deficiency. If both serum Fe and haemoglobin are low, then iron deficiency anemia has developed.

TIBC level should be checked when serum Fe level is abnormal. Both TIBC and serum Fe level are used to calculate the transferrin saturation which would:
(1) determine the degree of iron deficiency.
(2) distinguish between anaemia due to chronic diseases and iron deficiencies.
(3) screen for haemochromatosis or chronic iron overdose.

  • Hepatitis Screening

Hepatitis A antibody(HAV IgG) Hepatitis A is a highly infectious liver disease.The infection has close relation with living environment and sanitary habits. Positive (+) result means infection by hepatitis A virus and has immunity; negative (-) result suggests hepatitis A vaccine to prevent the infection.

Items include hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B surface antibody (Anti-HBs). If both tests are negative, hepatitis B core antibody (Anti-HBc) should also be checked.

Hepatitis C is usually transmitted through blood transfusion, intravenous injection, hemodialysis and body fluid infection. If the result is negative, it means either there is no hepatitis C infection, or there is infection but the disease is still in the incubation stage. The test should be repeated after 6 months. Positive Anti-HCV tests indicate that hepatitis C infection may already develop. In such case, liver function should be checked regularly and do not donate blood.

  • Tumor Markers

AFP blood concentration is most commonly used method to screen liver cancer (the best result would be a combination with abdominal ultrasound). High AFP level may indicate liver cancer or chronic hepatitis. But high level is sometimes seen in stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer, teratoma, testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, pregnancy and acute hepatitis etc. Clinical assessment is important to make,a definitive diagnosis.

CEA is a tumour marker and its level usually increases in colo-rectal cancer and pancreatic tumour. Other cancer may also cause an elevated level but the rise is usually milder. CEA examination is a non-specific test with a minute possibility of false positive, therefore clinical assessment and other reference indices are important adjuncts in making a final diagnosis.

PSA is a glycoprotein secreted by the prostate gland. It has enzymatic function and is associated with liquefaction of the seminal fluid. Prostate glands are exclusive to males and situated on 2 sides of the urethra outside the bladder.

CA19-9 is a glycoprotein found in cancer cells. It has antigenic properties and can be used as a tumour marker. CA19-9 is mainly associated with cancer of the digestive tract, with higher positive rates in pancreatic cancer and gallbladder cancer.

Tumour marker CA72-4 rarely shows large amount in blood of healthy people or normal patient, so it is very useful in detecting certain cancer.

  • H.Pylori Ab

H.pylori antibody is tested from blood, positive result indicates current or previous infection.

  • Thyroid Function Test

TSH is a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland to stimulate thyroxine production by the thyroid gland. TSH level measures thyroid function and is usually checked in conjunction with thyroxine level (T4).

The thyroid hormones can be classified into T3 and T4. Most of the thyroid hormones in the blood bind with the binding protein. A small portion exists in free form, and it's only functional when it is in free form. When the concentration is high, it is considered as hyper-thyroidism. On the contrary, when the concentration decreases, it is considered as low or hypo-thyroidism.

  • Tissue Inflammation Screening

CRP is used to screen acute/chronic infections or tissue damages. CRP screening must be accompanied by other investigations, self observed symptoms and clinical assessments to make a definitive diagnosis. A high CRP level is abnormal and is mainly seen in all types of inflammations and collagen vascular diseases (like rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus etc.)

RA factor is an auto-immune antibody and is present in the serum of 75% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (occasionally RA factor is present in non-rheumatoid arthritis case).

  • Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)

RPR is most commonly used method for syphilis screening. A positive or weakly positive test does not necessarily indicatessyphilis infection. Further confirmation is required by testing TPHA (Treponema pallidum haemagglutination).

TPHA is a specific test for syphilis. It is done whenever RPR is positive.

  •  Anti-HIV

AIDS is a viral disease which will destroy the body immune system. AIDS patients are prone to opportunistic infections which may develop into other forms of infectious diseases and malignant tumours. This test is used to screen the body for infection by HIV virus.

  • Blood Grouping

Blood groups are divided into A, B, O and AB. If incompatible blood is used for transfusion, haemolysis will occur and may even cause death in severe cases.

Fecal occult blood test is a very useful diagnostic indicator for checking gastrointestinal bleeding. For patients suspected of chronic gastrointestinal bleeding, fecal occult blood examination should be performed, and the early screening of gastrointestinal malignant tumors (such as gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, polyps, and adenoma) is of great significance.

  • Faecal occult blood test (FOBT test)

This cancer screening is done by the newest FOBT autoanalyser and tests for occult blood (ie. minute quantity of blood that cannot be seen) in the faeces. If FOBT is positive, proctoscopic examination is indicated for proper diagnosis. A negative FOBT does not necessarily exclude colo-rectal lesions. If there are persistent symptoms of chronic diarrhoea, constipation, abdominal pain or changes in bowel habits etc., medical consultation should be sought.

Urine examinations include routine urine analysis, urine composition detection (such as urinary red blood cells, white blood cells, etc.), quantitative determination of protein components, urinary enzymes, etc.

Examination of urine appearance is used to diagnose or assess urinary tract diseases, and to screen metabolic disorders which are not directly renal in origin.

Normally, urine contains protein (150mg/day) which shows negative results on paper testing. Positive PRO result may imply:

• physiological proteinuria: after too much muscular exertion, lengthy cold shower or heavy intake of protein.
• orthostatic proteinuria: some people have protein in their urine after prolonged standing.
• pathological proteinuria: nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, high fever, eclampsia etc

Normally, urine contains no glucose or only a trace amount. If urine GLU is positive, diabetes mellitus should be suspected and follow-up tests are required.

Bilirubin is the degradation product of haemoglobin in erythroblasts. Normal urine contains no BIL. Positive test indicates the presence of BIL in the urine, and may be caused by bile duct obstruction or liver disease etc.

Urobilinogen is formed by bacterial reaction to bilirubin in the intestines. URO is excreted in the urine and normal URO concentration is 0.1-1 unit/100cc. High URO level indicates the possibility of haemolytic jaundice, acute hepatitis, cirrhosis etc. If URO is present in the urine, then the biliary ducts may be obstructed.

This assesses whether there is bacteria infection in urinary tract. Positive result requires further microscopic examination to identify the specific pathogen.

Ketone produced by incomplete fat metabolism and absent in normal urine. Positive tests may be seen in diabetes mellitus, starvation, fever, chronic diarrhoea and vomiting etc. For people on diet with limited intake of carbohydrates, KET might also be positive in urine

Increased leukocytes in urine indicates urinary tract infection and should be interpreted in conjunction with results of urine protein and nitrite. Sometimes, increased number of leukocytes may be due to contamination by female vaginal discharge. Therefore, proper cleaning of female vulva before collection of urine specimen is essential.

Urine OB test will be positive when there is blood in the urine and vice versa. Positive urine OB may indicate urethral stones, nephritis or urinary tract cancer etc. False positive test may occur if the urine sample is left standing for too long or in women during menstruation. Huge intake of vit. C may cause false negative result.

Normal urine SG for adults ranges from 1.01 to 1.03.

(1) Low urine SG: seen in diuresis, polycystic kidney, diuretic therapy or over-hydration.
(2) High urine SG: seen in diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, dehydration and vomiting.

Fresh urine is slightly acidic, with a normal pH of 5 - 8. pH > 8 indicates alkalinity with possibilities of urinary tract infections, inflammations or renal function impairments and etc. pH < 5 indicates acidity and may be found in starvation or ketosis. Different diets will affect urine pH. Vegetarians usually have alkaline urine whereas high protein diets produce acidic urine. Long standing urine will turn alkaline.

including pulse, breathing, blood pressure, etc. It is one of the important indicators for timely understanding of body changes.

  • Height
  • Weight
  • BMI
  • Body Fat %
  • Waist Circumference
  • Hips Circumference
  • Waist / Hip Ratio
  • Blood Pressure
  • Pulse Rate
  • Respiration Rate
  • Chest Circumference
  • Chest Circumference (Inspiration) 
  • Lower Limbs Edema

This test is used to check lung functions and to understand the diseases related to lungs. Test items include: lung vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second and maximum mid flow rate.

  • Pulmonary Function Tests

Audiometry is done mainly for detection of mild or severe hearing impairments. The detrimental effect of sound pollution is getting more serious, causing hearing abilities to deteriorate unknowingly. Therefore, annual audiometry test is recommended.

  • Left/Right Audiometry 

Vision tests Include checking for eyesight, colour discrimination, strabismus, astigmatism and eye pressure etc. Ocular pressure is the measurement of the aqueous humour pressure in eye chambers. If ocular pressure is too high, further examination is requied to confirm whether glaucoma has develope. High ocular pressure may cause blindness.

  • Vision 
  • Strabismus
  • Astigmatism
  • Color Discrimination
  • Ocular Tension

Image Screening

Sonography is a diagnostic imaging technique, its aim is often to find a source of a disease or to exclude pathology.

  • Liver
  • Intrahepatic Bile
  • Common Bile Duct
  • Gall Bladder
  • Kidney
  • Portal Vein
  • Pancreas
  • Spleen and others
  • Prostate Ultrasound >40 year old
  • Breast Ultrasound
  • Gynaecology Ultrasound

Mammography uses X-ray to produce breast images. There will be some discomfort or slight pain during the procedures as the breast need to be tightly compresses to enable good imaging. It is used to detect breast lesions which are too small to be palpated.The success rate of detection of early stage breast cancer is commendable. Targeted examinees are as following :

  1. Those who discovered lumps or unusual changes of breast during breast self examination.
  2. Females over 50 years old are recommended to do mammography once a yar or every two years.
  3. Female over 50 yers old and high rish groups are recommended to perform mammography annualy.

X-ray a certain part of the human body, it can form different images in depth and depth, which can help to diagnose many diseases

  • Chest X-ray
  • Lateral Chest X-ray
  • Abdominal X-Ray (KUB) 

Bone Mineral Density (BMD) screening is a scanning method to determine bone density and assess bone strength.
BMD can be used as an indirect indicator to assess the risk of osteoporosis and fracture.

Cardiovascular Tests

Electrocardiogram (ECG) is the best way to measure and diagnose abnormal heart rhythm

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG)

Stress test is a method of increasing the heart load through a certain amount of exercise, observing changes in the ECG, and especially coronary heart disease.

Measuring the Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) and the Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) of upper & lower limbs will aid to assess the vessel obstruction level and arteriosclerosis.

Gynecological Examination

The prevalence of cervical cancer is very high. However, the cancer can be detected early by Pap's smear examination of the cervix. If early treatment is commenced, the mortality rate can be significantly reduced. Since Pap's smear examination is an effective screening method for cervical cancer, annual examination is recommended for females who are sexually active.

This examination is performed by gynaecological specialist. It helps examiner to check the reproductive organ, the size of cervix, the colour and the shape of external cervical orifice. It is also used to check for any polyps, tumours, inflammation of cervix and the amount, nature,colour and odour of secretion. It gives view of any abnormalities in cervix vaginal amd vulva.

Ultrasound examination of breast is more accurate than mammography in diagnosing cysts or benign fibromas. It is the most effective disgnostic tool for yound famales, females before the menopausal age and females with high density of mammary glands.

Gynaecological ultrasound examination can detect abnormalities of female reproductive organ, such as uterus, ovaries and etc.If following conditions occur,it is recommended to follow up with gynaecological ultrasound examination every 6 months to 1 year:-

  1. Bloating or lumps in lower abdomen.
  2. Frequent urination.
  3. Abnormal vaginal bleeding, profuse menstruation or dysmenorrhea.
  4. History of uterine fibroids or ovarian cysts.
  5. Insertion of intrauterine device (IUD) and to check the location of IUD.
  6. Never done any gynaecological examination within 6 months.

Mammography uses X-ray to produce breast images. There will be some discomfort or slight pain during the procedures as the breast need to be tightly compresses to enable good imaging. It is used to detect breast lesions which are too small to be palpated. The success rate of detection of early stage breast cancer is commendable. Targeted examinees are as following :

  1. Those who discovered lumps or unusual changes of breast during breast self examination.
  2. Females over 50 years old are recommended to do mammography once a yar or every two years.
  3. Female over 50 yers old and high rish groups are recommended to perform mammography annualy.

Specialist Examination

Parts to be examined by Specialist doctor include ear, nose, nasopharynx, oropharynx, throat and neck etc. Diseases to be screened include nasopharyngeal carcinoma, perforated tympanum, otitis media, sinusitis, nasal septum deviation, tonsillitis, vocal cord nodules etc.

  • Nose
  • Throat
  • Oral Pharynx 
  • Nasal Pharynx

Retina is an important part of the eye. The blood vessel of eye fundus is the structure that can be examined by retinography. In this examination, ophthalmologist can evaluate the health condition of examinees' body functions or eyes.

Slit lamp examination is done through a thin sheet of light focussing on ocular tissue, via the microscopic examination of conjunctiva, cornea, crystal and pupil. It is used to check for corneal leukoplakia, corneal puncture, keratitis, cataract, conjunctiva or corneal foreign body and other abnormalities.

Health Management Consultation

In order to achieve better health management, our health management consultants will provide suggestions on lifestyle & dietary modification, nutritional supplementation adjustment, personalised exercise techniques, based on the screening results.

Physician Conclusion

Doctor to reviews the reports and provide professional advise on the same day.

MJ Health Screening Packages Brochure